A French apple brandy produced in a delimited zone in the province of Normandy, just west of Paris. It has a dry, fruity taste.
Slightly burnt sugar used for the colouring of spirits and some wines.
A process where the grapes ferment internally, maximizing the fruitiness, minimizing the tannins. In Beaujolais this style of fermentation defines the wines. It is being used much more in warmer climates to bring out greater fruitiness and less tannins.
Yeast is added to the finished beer while the beer is still in the casks in order to produce the carbonation. In the past beer would go to market with the casks still 'working'.
The official Spanish term for sparkling wine made by méthode champenoise.
French term for the variety of grape, for example, Pinot Noir or Chardonnay.
Authentic chablis is a dry white wine from the vineyards around the town of the same name in the Burgundy region of France. However, in other parts of the world, the name has been borrowed to mean a dry white wine of uncertain provenance.
The addition of sugar to a must before fermentation in order to increase the alcohol content of the finished wine. The amount of sugar added to any must is strictly regulated in most areas and is even outlawed in many regions.
The French chemist who invented the bulk sparkling wine process.
A beverage made from the fermented juice of crushed apples.
The word universally used for red Bordeaux. Its origins hark back to the English corruption of the French word "clairet" meaning a light red wine.
Central and original area of an Italian DOC, indicating where the best wines have always come from.
Another name for the continuous still. Name derived from Aeneas Coffey who, in 1830, perfected Robert Stein's original design.
A fast method for adding botanicals to gin and liqueurs. It uses the process of maceration.
Another name for the continuous still based on appearances. In comparison to the shorter pot still, the continuous still is a taller column.
The name of the process for adding more that one flavouring ingredient, additional sweetners or colour to a liqueur. It entails a strict adherence to the recipe (it is quite a delicate operation) which states the sequence and amount of flavourings to be added.
These are fusel oils, acids, esters and other compounds that contribute to the flavour, aroma and over quality of a alcoholic beverage. They are produced during fermentation and continue to be more pronounced when distilled.
Also known as the Coffey, Column or Patent still. Distilling apparatus consisting of two columns (the rectifier and the analyzer), which allows spirits to be made by a continuous process, allowing for large-scale production of grain whiskys.
Light, carbonated, low-alcohol fruit beverages having a variety of spirit (rum, tequila, vodka) or wine bases.
Another name for "liqueur". A sweetened alcoholic beverage made by mixing or redistilling spirits with various flavourings and colours.
The traditional stopper of a wine bottle. It comes from the bark of the cork oak treee. The significant characteristic of the cork is its resistance to humidity and its ability to prevent air from entering a bottle, while allowing the wine to breathe and mature in the bottle.
The description for a wine that has developed off aromas and flavours due to contact with a number of chemical compounds in the cork. The worst offender is 2,4,6 trichloroanisole (TCA). Corky is probably a more accurate term to use.
French term for a slope, or hillside, covered with vines.
The dropping of unpollinated (or poorly pollinated) flowers, or partially developed berries. Usually the result of a wet spring. May lead to 'millerandage'.
Sweetened oloroso sherry.
French term for 'creaming'. Used to designate white wines that are less sparkling than a 'mousseux' and more sparkling than 'petillant'. Also an appellation for high quality Champagne-method sparkling wines from Alsace, the Loire, Bourgogne and Limoux.
The 'nursery' in the sherry maturation process. Describes the first state of a sherry solera, where the youngest wine is beginning to age.
French term for 'growth'. Usually indicates a vineyard of particular quality and status. Sometimes prefaced by 'Grand' or 'Premier'. Found in Burgundy, Bordeaux, Beaujolais and Alsace.
Translates literally as 'classed growth' and refers to the 1855 classification of the Médoc wines (along with the sweet whites of Sauternes/Barsac and one Graves property) of Bordeaux. These classed growths can command considerable premiums in price.
A French term derived from 'cuve' (a french wine vat), and designating the contents of a vat, or all the wine produced at a winery under similar conditions. In Champagne, it refers more to the house style.