You’re not alone. I’m equally confused when I read some critics’ tasting notes. I wonder how they manage to find so many different flavours, especially in less expensive, less complex wines.
That said, you can train your palate to identify a range of flavours and aromas. The way to do it is to buy fruits, spices, flowers and vegetables and then practice blind tasting and smelling. Close your eyes and ask a friend to choose a fruit, spice or vegetable and hold it under your nose. Focus on trying to identify the items by smell. There are generally accepted descriptors for wine. The “aroma wheel” is a good reference (www.winearomawheel.com) and you can see the typical categories that you can focus on learning. But don’t forget that in a tasting note it is equally important to tell people about the structure of the wine. For example, is it dry, off-dry or sweeter? Is it high or low in acidity, or somewhere in the middle? This is much less subjective and even more helpful to the wine enthusiast than a long string of flavours and aromas in a tasting note.